Log in

knauf b1

High-Effective Lightweight Aggregate Obtained from Glass-Containing Waste

Number of journal: 12-2020

Mammadov H.N.,
Suleimanova I.H.,
Tahirov B.M.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-66-71
УДК: 666.972.125


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
The properties of high-strength artificial porous aggregate from glass-containing waste of metallurgical productions are described. The developed technology makes it possible to expand the raw material base for the production of aggregates for light concrete. Granulated slags of metallurgical productions – the main (M0>1) slags of the Novokuznetsk Iron and Steel Plant and acid (M0<1) slags of the Gorky plant are studied. According to the results of studies, it was found that the optimal swelling interval for acidic slags is 1000–1100оC, and for basic slags-1100–1150оC. A high – strength artificial porous aggregate-slag gravel with a bulk density of 340–780 kg/m3 and a compressive strength in the cylinder of 2.8–12.3 MPa was obtained. The main physical and mechanical properties of the resulting aggregate, which meets the requirements of the current standard GOST 9757–90 “Gravel, crushed stone and sand. Artificial porous”, were studied. The aggregate obtained is almost twice as strong as the known aggregate of expanded clay gravel. With the use of porous gravel and sand, light concrete of strength class B7,5–B40 and a density of 1100–1600 kg/m3 was obtained.
H.N. MAMMADOV, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.),
I.H. SULEIMANOVA, Ph. D (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.),
B.M. TAHIROV, Researcher (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Research and Design Institute of Building Materials named after S.A. Dadashov (67, Fizuli Street, Az 1014, Baku, Azerbaydgan)

1. Stolbushkin A.Yu., Storozhenko G.I. Waste coal preparation as a raw material and energy base of ceramic wall materials plants. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 4, pp. 43–46. (In Russian).
2. Dubynetsky V.V, Guryeva V.A, Vdovin K.М. Application of brown sludge as a guard for the production of ceramic bricks: Proceedings of the All-Russian Scientific and Methodological Conference – OSU. 2014, pp. 145–147. (In Russian).
3. Kuvykin N.A, Bubnov A.G, Grinevich V.I. Opasnye promyshlennye othody [Hazardous industrial waste]. Ivanovo: Ivanovo State University of Chemical Technology. 2004. 148 p.
4. Itskovich S.M. Zapolniteli dlja betona [Fillers for concrete]. Minsk: Higher School. 1983. 213 p.
5. Rogovoy M.I. Tehnologija iskusstvennyh poristyh zapolnitelej i keramiki [Technology of artificial porous aggregates and ceramics]. Moscow: Ekolit. 2011. 320 p.
6. Vasilkov S.G, Onatsky S.P, Elinzon M.P. Iskusstvennye poristye zapolniteli i legkie betony na ih osnove [Artificial porous aggregates and lightweight concretes based on them] Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1987. 296 p.
7. Volzhensky A.V, Burov Yu.S. etc. Betony i izdelija iz shlakovyh i zol’nyh materialov [Concretes and products from slag and ash materials]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1969. 391 p.
8. Goryainov K.E, Goryainova S.K. Tehnologija teploizoljacionnyh materialov i izdelij [Technology of heat-insulating materials and products]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1982. 376 p.
9. Davidyuk A.N. Legkie konstrukcionno-teploizoljacionnye betony na steklovidnyh poristyh zapolniteljah [Lightweight structural and thermal insulating concretes on glassy porous aggregates]. Moscow: Krasnaya Zvezda. 2008. 208 p.
10. Korolev E.V, Inozemtsev A.S High-strength lightweight concretes: structure and properties. Concrete and reinforced concrete – a look into the future III All-Russia (II International) Conference on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete, Moscow. 2014. Vol. V, pp. 277–286.
11. Korolev E.V., Inozemtcev A.S. Preparation and research of high-strength lightweight concrete based on hollow microspheres. Advanced Materials Research. 2013. Vol. 746. C. 285–288. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.746.285
12. Mamedov G.N. Vysokoprochnye iskusstvennye poristye zapolniteli [High-strength artificial porous fillers]. Baku, 2000. 222 p.
13. Mamedov G.N, Mirzoev M.M. Porous gravel on the basis of various slags and weaklybonding stone-like clays, high-strength lightweight concretes on their basis. Tehnologii betonov. 2014. No. 11, pp. 16–18. (In Russian)

For citation: Mammadov H.N., Suleimanova I.H., Tahirov B.M. High-effective lightweight aggregate obtained from glass-containing waste. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 66–71. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-66-71

Discharge-pulse Geotechnical Electro Discharge Technology of Bases Strengthening

Number of journal: 12-2020

Sokolov N.S.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-63-65
УДК: 624.15


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
The problem of increasing the bearing capacity of the base is an relevant problem in modern geotechnical construction. When significant loads are transmitted to the base, the use of traditional technologies is not always justified. Often there is an urgent need to use non-standard ways to strengthen the bases. In many cases, the geotechnical situation is aggravated by the presence of weak underlying layers with unstable physical and mechanical characteristics in engineering-geological sections. When strengthening such bases with the help of traditional piles, the latter can get negative friction, which significantly reduces their bearing capacity on the ground, sometimes reaching zero values. This may lead to additional precipitations of the objects being constructed and constructed in the zone of geotechnical influence. The use of ERT piles in most cases successfully solves many complex geotechnical problems.
N.S. SOKOLOV1, 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Director(This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

1 I.N. Ulianov Chuvash State University (15, Moskovsky Prospect, Cheboksary, Chuvash Republic, 428015, Russian Federation)
2 OOO NPF “FORST” (109a, Kalinina Street, Cheboksary, Chuvash Republic, 428000, Russian Federation)

1. Cai F., Uga K. Numerical analysis of the stability of a stope reinforced with piles. Soils and Foundations. 2000. 40 (1), pp. 73–84.
2. Hassiotis S., Chamcau J.L., Gunaratne M. Design method for stabilisation of slopes with piles. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 1997. 123 (4), pp. 314–323.
3. Lee J.H., Salgado R. Detervination of pile base resistance in sands. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 1999. 125 (8), pp. 673–683.
4. Mandolini A., Russo G., Veggiani C. Pile foundations: experimtntal investigations, analisis and design. Ground Engineering. 2005. 38 (9), pp. 34–38.
5. Ильичев В.А., Мангушев Р.А., Никифорова Н.С. Опыт освоения подземного пространства российских мегаполисов // Основания, фундаменты и механика грунтов. 2012. № 2. С. 17–20.
5. Ilichev V.A., Mangushev R.A., Nikiforova N.S. Experience of development of russian megacities underground space. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov. 2012. No. 2, pp. 17–20. (In Russian).
6. Ulickij V.M., Shashkin A.G., Shashkin K.G. Geotekhnicheskoe soprovozhdenie razvitiya gorodov [Geotechnical support of urban development]. Saint Petersburg: Georeconstruction, 2010. 551 p.
7. Ilichev V.A., Konovalov P.A., Nikiforova N.S., Bulgakov L.A. Deformations of the retaining structures upon deep excavations in Moscow. Proc. Of Fifth Int. Conf on Case Histories in Geotechnical Engineering, April 3–17. New York. 2004, pp. 5–24.
8. Ilyichev V.A., Nikiforova N.S., Koreneva E.B. Computing the evaluation of deformations of the buildings located near deep foundation tranches. Proc. of the XVIth European conf. on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering. Madrid, Spain, 24–27th September 2007. «Geo-technical Engineering in urban Environments». Vol. 2, pp. 581–585.
9. Nikiforova N.S., Vnukov D.A. Geotechnical cut-off diaphragms for built-up area protection in urban underground development. The pros, of the 7thI nt. Symp. «Geotechnical aspects of underground construction in soft ground», 16–18 May, 2011. tc28 IS Roma, AGI. 2011, № 157NIK.
10. Nikiforova N.S., Vnukov D.A. The use of cut off of different types as a protection measure for existing buildings at the nearby underground pipelines installation. Proc. of Int. Geotech. Conf. dedicated to the Year of Russia in Kazakhstan. Almaty, Kazakhstan. 23–25 September 2004, pp. 338–342.
11. Petrukhin V.P., Shuljatjev O.A., Mozgacheva O.A. Effect of geotechnical work on settlement of surrounding buildings at underground construction. Proceedings of the 13th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Prague, 2003.
12. Triantafyllidis Th., Schafer R. Impact of diaphragm wall construction on the stress state in soft ground and serviceability of adjacent foundations. Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Madrid, Spain. 22–27 September 2007, pp. 683–688.
13. Sokolov N.S. Ground Ancher Produced by Elektric Discharge Technology, as Reinforsed Concrete Structure. Key Enginiring Materials. 2018, pp. 76–81.
14. Sokolov N.S. Use of the Piles of Effective Type in Geotechnical Construction. Key Enginiring Materials. 2018, pp. 70–74.
15. Sokolov N.S. One of Geotechnological Technologies for Ensuring the Stability of the Boiler of the Pit. Key Enginiring Materials. 2018, pp. 56–69.
16. Sokolov N.S. Regulated injection pile-electric discharge technology with multiple pile enlargements posed as an underground reinforced concrete structure with a controlled load capacity. 18 international multidisciplenary scientific GeoConference SGEM 2018 Albena Resort SPA Bulgaria. 2018, pp. 601–608.
17. Sokolov N.S. One of the geotechnical technologies to strengthen the foundation base in constraint environment in the addition of 4 floors. 18 international multidisciplenary scientific GeoConference SGEM 2018 Albena Resort SPA Bulgaria. 2018, pp. 513–522.
18. Sokolov N.S., Viktorova S.S. Method of aliging the turches of objects targe-sized foundations and increased loads on them. Key Enginiring Materials. 2018, pp. 1–11.
19. Соколов Н.С., Соколов А.Н., Соколов С.Н., Глушков В.Е., Глушков А.Е. Расчет буроинъекционных свай повышенной несущей способности // Жилищное строительство. 2017. № 11. С. 20–26.
19. Sokolov N.S., Sokolov A.N., Sokolov S.N., Glush-kov V.E., Glushkov A.E. Calculation of increased bearing capacity bored piles. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 11, pp. 20–26. (In Russian).
20. Соколов Н.С. Фундамент повышенной несущей способности с использованием буроинъекционных свай ЭРТ с многоместными уширениями // Жилищное строительство. 2017. № 9. С. 25–29.
20. Sokolov N.S. The Foundation of Increased Bearing Capacity employing bored electric discharge (ЭРТ) piles with multi-seat broadening. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2017. No. 9, pp. 25–29. (In Russian).
21. Nikolay Sokolov, Sergey Ezhov, Svetlana Ezhova. Preserving the natural landscape on the construction site for sustainable ecosystem. Journal of applied engineering science. Vol. 15. article 482, pp. 518–523. DOI: 10.5937/jaes15-14719.
22. Соколов Н.С., Викторова С.С. Исследование и разработка разрядного устройства для изготовления буровой набивной сваи // Строительство: Новые технологии – новое оборудование. 2017. № 12. С. 38–43.
22. Sokolov N.S., Viktorova S.S. Research and Development of a Discharge Device for Manufacturing a Bored Pile. Stroitelstvo: noviye tekhnologiyi – novoye oborudovaniye. 2017. No. 12, pp. 38–43. (In Russian).
23. Соколов Н.С. Алгоритм понижения полов подвала с использованием свай ЭРТ и грунтовых анкеров ЭРТ // Бетон и железобетон. 2020. № 2 (602). С. 39–47.
23. Sokolov N.S. The algorithm of lowering floors of the basement with the use of piles ERT and ground anchors ERT. Beton i Zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 2020. No. 2 (602), pp. 39–47. (In Russian).
24. Sokolov N. Electroimpulse Device for Manufacture of Continuous Flight Augering Piles. Current Trends in Civil and Structurual Engineering. August 2020.
25. Sokolov N. Approach to Increasing the Carring Capacity of the Pile Base. Current Trends in Civil and Structurual Engineering. August 2020.

For citation: Sokolov N.S. Discharge-pulse geotechnical electro discharge technology of bases strengthening. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 63–65. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-63-65

Design of Steel Structures in Seismic Conditions

Number of journal: 12-2020

Olfati R.S

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-58-62
УДК: 699.841


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
The principles of designing earthquake-resistant steel frames of industrial buildings are considered. Particular attention is paid to the causes of damage to steel frames due to seismic loads impact, as well as the requirements that must be met when designing steel frames in seismically active areas. The most suitable materials that can be used to strengthen the steel frame, because of its correct operation relative to the resulting seismic loads have been studied. The analysis of loads calculated according to the normative documents of Russia and other countries of the world, and their comparison with each other are presented. An overview of possible experimental methods for determining the strength of the frame under seismic loads is given, as well as a critical assessment of the regulatory documents used, namely the formulas and coefficients used, and alternative solutions are proposed. The influence of soil on the strength parameters of the steel frame under seismic load, as well as the influence of own vibrations and forms of the structure on the pliability of the bases, were studied. Promising design solutions for steel frames in the event of earthquakes are indicated. The experience of designing earthquake-resistant structures abroad was studied and the materials of past accidents in Russia and other countries of the world were analyzed.
R.S. OLFATI, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Department of Construction, Engineering Academy (6, Miklukho-Maklaya Street, Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation)

1. Olfati R.S. Issues of seismic stability of steel frames of low-rise industrial buildings. International scientific-practical conference “Building structures of the XXI century”. Moscow. November 2000, pp. 89–100. (In Russian).
2. Olfati R.S. Steel structures of low-rise industrial buildings in high seismic conditions. Dis... Candidate of Sciences (Engineering). Moscow. 2004. 175 p. (In Russian).
3. Vorobieva K.V., Sorokina G.V., Frese M.V., Smirnova L.N., Wang Haibin, Chang Yuan, Guang Yuhai. Calculation of metal spans of bridges for seismic load. Seismic construction. Seysmostoykoye stroitel’stvo. 2016. No. 4, pp. 26–32. (In Russian).
4. Leonova A.N. Modern methods of reconstruction and increasing the seismic stability of buildings. Science today: global challenges and development mechanisms. Materials of the international scientific and practical conference. Vologda. 2016. Vol. 1, p. 40. (In Russian).
5. Bubis A.A., Petryashev N.O., Petryashev S.O., Petrosyan A.E. Full-scale dynamic tests for seismic resistance of the KUPASS architectural and construction system. Seysmostoykoye stroitel’stvo. Bezopasnost’ sooruzheniy. 2016. No. 2, pp. 13–23. (In Russian).
6. Maslyaev A.V. Author’s paradigm of the Russian construction system. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2020. No. 1–2, pp. 65–71. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2020-1-2-65-71
7. Vedyakov I.I., Vostrov V.K. Emergency design situations and emergency seismic loads. Seysmostoykoye stroitel’stvo. Bezopasnost’ sooruzheniy. 2016. No. 5, pp. 33–38. (In Russian).
8. Belash T.A., Rybakov P.L. Buildings with suspended structures in seismic areas. Magazine of Civil Engineering. 2016. No. 5 (65), pp. 17–26.
9. Ter-Martirosyan A.Z., Manukyan A.V., Sobolev E.S., Anzhelo G.O. Influence of soils damping on the interaction of the base and structure under seismic action. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 1–2, pp. 39–44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-1-2-39-44 (In Russian).
10. Livandovsky N.N., Pakhmurin O.R. Numerical assessment of the methodology for taking into account the influence of the soil foundation on the stress-strain state of structures under the action of a seismic load. Youth, science, technologies: new ideas and perspectives. Materials of the III International Scientific Conference of Students and Young Scientists. Tomsk. 2016. Vol. 1, pp. 190–195. (In Russian).
11. Gupta A.K. Response spectrum method: in seismic analysis and design of structures. 2017. 139 p.
12. Smirnov S.B., Zulpuev A.M., Ordobaev B.S., Abdykeeva Sh.S. Wave impulse impact on buildings and structures. Territoriya nauki. 2015. No. 3, pp. 56–63. (In Russian).
13. Klovsky A.V., Mareeva O.V. Features of the design of facilities with a higher level of responsibility at the boundary values of the seismicity of the construction site. Prirodoobustroystvo. 2018. No. 3, pp. 63–68. (In Russian).
14. Sorokin A.G., Dobrynina A.A. Comparative analysis of seismic and infrasonic signals during impulse events and earthquakes. Izvestiya Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Nauki o Zemle. 2017. Vol. 20, pp. 106–116. (In Russian).
15. Ushakov O.Yu., Alekhin V.N. Method for calculating buildings and structures taking into account the spatial nature of seismic impact. Akademicheskiy vestnik UralNIIproyekt RAASN. 2014. No. 3, pp. 77–81. (In Russian).
16. Berry B.L. Models of seismicity, earth rotation, climate and solar activity. Space and time of earthquakes in the Vrancea zone. Prostranstvo i Vremya. 2016. No. 3, pp. 220–235. (In Russian).
17. Salandaeva O.I., Berzhinskaya L.P. Urban planning features of residential development in the city of Shelekhov in conditions of high seismicity. Vestnik Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. 2013. No. 6 (77), pp. 97–105. (In Russian).
18. Gatinsky Yu.G., Rundqvist D.V., Vladova G.L., Prokhorova T.V. The level of seismic hazard in the areas of strategic energy facilities of the border areas of Russia and the near abroad. Elektronnoye nauchnoye izdaniye Al’manakh Prostranstvo i Vremya. 2013. No. 1, p. 13.

For citation: Olfati R.S. Design of steel structures in seismic conditions. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 58–62. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-58-62

Temperature Effects on Polymer Structures of Canopies for Inversion Roofs of Multi-Storey Residential Buildings

Number of journal: 12-2020

Malbiev S.A.,
Fedosov S.V.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-52-57
УДК: 699.868


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
The influence of temperature effects on the technical condition of cross-rod spatial structures of canopies for inversion roofs of multi-storey residential buildings made of polymer materials is considered on the example of tubular elements made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). For modern multi-storey residential buildings, the current regulatory and technical documentation provides for operational (inversion) roofs, which can accommodate children’s sports grounds, cafes, bars, restaurants, parking lots, tanning salons, as well as gardens and architectural and landscape objects, helicopter platforms, etc. To protect visitors against atmospheric influences, canopies made of spatial core building structures (SCBS), which are operated in the open air, taking into account various climatic influences: high and low temperatures, corresponding humidity, precipitation, etc., are recommended. The elements of the core system are of the greatest interest for taking into account the temperature impact on the technical condition of the developed structure. The general solution of the problem of non-stationary heat transfer of a structure for calculating a two-dimensional temperature field is considered in a nonlinear formulation. The problem of thermal conductivity is considered under the assumption that there is a technical possibility for supplying a coolant inside the cylinder. As a result, there is a heat flow, with which it is possible to adjust the temperature between the outer and inner areas of the cylindrical elements for more efficient installation of the stress-strain state of the entire supporting structure as a whole.
S.A. MALBIEV1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering), Leading researcher;
S.V. FEDOSOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering), Academician of RAASN (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

1 “Engineer-Story” NPP LLC (office 103, 15a, Krasnykh Zor’ Street, Ivanovo, 153003, Russian Federation)
2 National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (26, Yaroslavskoe Highway, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation)

1. Malbiyev S.A. Konstruktsii iz dereva i plastmass. Perekrestno-sterzhnevyye prostranstvennyye konstruktsii pokrytiy zdaniy [Wood and plastic constructions. Cross-bar spatial structures of buildings’ roofs]. Moscow: ASV. 2017. 336 p.
2. Grozdov V.T. Defekty stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy i ikh posledstviya [Defects in building structures and their consequences]. Saint Petersburg: Center for Construction Quality. 2007. 136 p.
3. Shtark I., Vikht B. Dolgovechnost’ betona / Per. s nem. A. Tulaganov. Pod red. P. Krivenko [Durability of concrete. Translated from German A. Tulaganov. Edited by P. Krivenko]. Weimar, 1995; Kiev: ORANTA, 2004. 294 p.
4. Kazachek V.G., Nechayev N.V., Notenko S.N. i dr. Obsledovaniye i ispytaniye zdaniy i sooruzheniy / Pod red. V.I. Rimshina. 3-ye izd. [Inspection and testing of buildings and structures / Edited by V.I. Rimshin. 3rd ed.]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 2007. 655 p.
5. Dobromyslov A.N. Diagnostika povrezhdeniy zdaniy i inzhenernykh sooruzheniy: Spravochnoye posobiye. 2-ye izd., pererab. i dop. [Diagnostics of damage to buildings and engineering structures: A reference guide. 2nd ed., Revised and enlarged]. Moscow: ASV. 2008. 304 p.
6. Gudramovich V.S., Pereverzev Ye.S. Nesushchaya sposobnost’ i dolgovechnost’ elementov konstruktsiy [Bearing capacity and durability of structural elements]. Kiev: Naukova dumka. 1981. 284 p.
7. Khrulev V.M. Prognozirovaniye dolgovechnosti kleyevykh soyedineniy derevyannykh konstruktsiy [Forecasting the durability of glued joints in wooden structures]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1981. 128 p.
8. Fedosov S.V. Teplomassoperenos v tekhnologicheskikh protsessakh stroitel’noy industrii: monografiya [Heat and mass transfer in the technological processes of the construction industry: monograph]. Ivanovo: IPK “PressSto”. 2010. 364 p.
9. Lykov A.V. Theoretical foundations of building thermal physics [Teoreticheskiye osnovy stroitel’noy teplofiziki]. Minsk: Ed. AN BSSR. 1961. 520 p.
10. Fedosov S.V., Malbiev S.A. Structural structures made of polymeric materials for coating buildings and structures with a chemically aggressive environment. Part 1. Strength and deformability in a stationary thermal field. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2018. No. 3, pp. 54–61. (In Russian).
11. Fedosov S.V., Malbiev S.A. Structural structures made of polymeric materials for coating buildings and structures with a chemically aggressive environment. Part 2. Non-stationary heat transfer. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2018. No. 6, pp. 25–29. (In Russian).
12. Lykov A.V. Theory of heat conduction [Teoriya teploprovodnosti]. Moscow: Vysshaya shkola. 1967. 600 p.
13. Lykov A.V., Mikhailov Yu.A. Theory of heat and mass transfer [Teoriya teplo- i massoperenosa]. Moscow, Leningrad: Gosenergoizdat. 1963. 535 p.

For citation: Malbiev S.A., Fedosov S.V. Temperature effects on polymer structures of canopies for inversion roofs of multi-storey residential buildings. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 52–57. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-52-57

Innovative Energy-Saving Sandwich-Panels for Industrial Construction

Number of journal: 12-2020

Nikolaev V.N.,
Stepanova V.F.,
Mikhailova A.V.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-47-51
УДК: 691.328.4:620.193


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
Today, large-panel housing construction occupies a leading position, both in terms of construction speed and sales, which contributes to an increase in the volume of precast concrete housing construction. Outdated series of large-panel houses do not meet modern requirements. Old faceless panel houses are gradually replaced by beautiful housing complexes with different types of facades. At present, in the technology of construction of panel houses from sandwich-panels, the relevant trend is to reduce the standard thickness of the facade layer of a three-layer sandwich-panel (GOST 31310–2015 “ Three-Layer Reinforced Concrete Wall Panels with Effective Insulation. General Technical Conditions”) from 70 mm to 40 mm or less. Panel houses require a reduction in metal consumption, material consumption and improvement of thermal characteristics. This requires the development and implementation of new materials. The use of such construction products made of composite materials as diagonal flexible composite connections, flexible mounting loops and composite reinforcement mesh will make it possible to reduce the thickness of the protective layer of concrete without compromising the stability of the structure under the influence of the external environment due to the high corrosion resistance of the composite, reduce the weight of the panel, reduce the cost of manufacturing a unit of panel, increase the energy efficiency of the panel, ensure long-term strength of enclosing structures – create an innovative energy-efficient reinforced concrete sandwich panel of the XXI century.
V.N. NIKOLAEV1, Director (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.);
V.F. STEPANOVA2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering);
A.V. MIKHAILOVA1, Marketer

1 CJSC “The Republican Chamber of Entrepreneurs” (4, Kombinatskaya Street, Cheboksary, Chuvash Republic, 428008, Russian Federation)
2 JSC Research Center of Construction, Research Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete named after A.A. Gvozdev (6, bldg. 5, 2nd Institutskaya Street, Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation)

1. Babkov V.V., Kolesnik G.S., Gajsin A.M. Bearing external three-layer walls of buildings with high thermal protection. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1998. No. 6, pp. 16–18. (In Russian).
2. Stepanova V.F., Buchkin A.V., Yurin E.Yu. Investigation of the properties of heavy concrete on a large aggregate reinforced with nonmetallic basalt fiber. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2018. No. 9, pp. 46–53. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2018-763-9-46-53
3. Patent RF 2142039. Armaturnyj ehlement dlya armirovaniya teploizolyacionnyh stenovyh konstrukcij i sposob ego izgotovleniya [Reinforcing element for the reinforcement of thermal insulating wall structures and method of its manufacture]. Bashara V.A., Val’d A.V., Ivanov S.N. Declared 28.09.1998. Published 27.11.1999. (In Russian).
4. Patent RF 149446. Gibkaya svyaz’ dlya trekhslojnyh ograzhdayushchih konstrukcij [Flexible connection for three-layer walling]. Nikolaev V.N., Nikolaev V.V. Declared 15.07.2014. Published 10.01.2015. Bulletin No. 1. (In Russian).
5. Zayavka na izobretenie GB № 2164367 (A). A concrete building unit of a sandwich structure. Paakkinen Ilmari, Partek A. B. Published 19.03.1986. (In UK).
6. Gagarin V.G., Dmitriev K.A. Accounting for thermal engineering heterogeneity in the assessment of thermal protection of enclosing structures in Russia and European countries. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 6, pp. 14–16. (In Russian).
7. Rozental’ N.K., Chekhnij G.V., Bel’nik A.R., Zhilkin A.P. Corrosion resistance of polymer composites in the alkaline environment of concrete. Beton i zhelezobeton. 2002. No. 3, pp. 20–23. (In Russian).
8. Nikolaev V.N., Stepanova V.F., Demina T.G. Com-posite diagonal flexible connections for three-layer concrete panels – panel housing construction of a new level. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2019. No. 10, pp. 33–37. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0044-4472-2019-10-14-20
9. Savin V.F., Blaznov A.N., Bashara V.A., Lugovoj A.N. Express method for assessing the resistance of polymer composite materials to the effects of an alkaline environment. Technique and technology for the production of thermal insulation materials from mineral raw materials. Papers of VI Scientific and Technical Conference. Moscow: FGUP «CNIIHM». 2006, pp. 203–207. (In Russian).
10. Nikolaev S.V. Modernization of large-panel housing construction – the locomotive of low-cost housing construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2011. No. 3, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).
11. Stepanova, V.F. Protection of concrete and reinforced concrete structures from corrosion – the basis of ensuring the durability of buildings and structures. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo. 2013. No. 1, pp. 13–16. (In Russian).
12. Stepanova V.F., Stepanov A.Yu., Zhirkov E.P. Armatura kompozitnaya polimernaya [Reinforcement composite polymer]. Moscow: ASV. 2013. 200 p.
13. Gorb A.M., Vojlokov I.A. The fiber-reinforced concrete  – background, regulatory framework, problems and solutions. Mezhdunarodnoe analiticheskoe obozrenie. 2009. No. 2, pp. 1–4. 1http://www.monolitpol.ru/files/monolitpol026.pdf (Date of access 14.04.2018). (In Russian).
14. Stepanova V.F., Falikman V.R., Buchkin A.V. Tasks and prospects of application of composites in construction. Actual questions of theory and practice of application of composite reinforcement in construction: Collected materials of the Third Scientific and Technical Conference. Izhevsk. 2017, pp. 55–72. (In Russian).
15. Nikolaev S.V. Arrangement of balconies with the help of hollow core floor slabs. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 10, pp. 17–21. (In Russian).
16. Nikolaev S.V. Renovation of housing stock of the country on the basis of large-panel housing construction. Zhilishchnoe Stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2018. No. 3, pp. 3–7. (In Russian).

For citation: Nikolaev V.N., Stepanova V.F., Mikhailova A.V. Innovative energy-saving sandwich-panels for industrial construction. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 47–51. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-47-51

Press- Formed Composites with Alternate Wetting and Drying Resistance Based on Modified Gypsum Binder

Number of journal: 12-2020

Kaklyugin A.V.,
Kastornykh L.I.,
Stupen N.S.,
Kovalenko V.V.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-40-46
УДК: 691.311


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
Water resistance of natural and artificial building materials is usually estimated by the softening coefficient. However, in the course of operation, materials, for example, for building enclosing structures, are rarely subjected to complete dewatering or water saturation. Therefore, one of the most important criteria for the durability of such products is their resistance to atmospheric influences (alternate wetting and drying resistance). In the present work, the possibility of increasing the alternate wetting and drying resistance of press-formed composites based on a modified gypsum binder is studied. We have developed a complex modifier of the gypsum binder and the structure of the resulting pressed composites, consisting of carbonate-containing slime of chemical water purification of thermoelectric power station and monoammonium phosphate. We studied the effect of the modifier on changes in the compressive strength of pressed composites in the dried and water-saturated state, softening and atmospheric durability coefficients, as well as linear deformations of control samples after a set number of cycles of alternating wetting and drying. We found that press-formed composites based on a modified gypsum binder are highly resistant to alternating wetting and drying. The complex modifier provides the formation of a more solid and monolithic structure of fine-crystalline calcium sulfate dihydrate, additionally reinforced with a hardly soluble phosphate-carbonate framework. The proposed method of modifying the gypsum binder prevents loosening of the structure of the press-formed stone-like material made from it under alternating stresses, reduces linear deformations and, as a result, slows down its fatigue failure. The technical characteristics of the obtained materials are sufficient for their use, in particular, in building enclosing structures.
A.V. KAKLYUGIN1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.),
L.I. KASTORNYKH1, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.);
N.S. STUPEN2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.),
V.V. KOVALENKO2, Senior lecturer (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

1 Don State Technical University (162, Sotsialisticheskaya St., Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation)
2 Brest State A.S. Pushkin University (21, Kosmonavtov bul., Brest, 224016, Belarus)

1. Getselev A.V. Products of high mechanical strength based on plaster. Promyshlennost’ stroitel’nykh materialov. 1946. No. 6, pp. 46–50. (In Russian).
2. Kryzhanovsky B.B., Levitina M.V., Smirnov N.V. Mastering the method of semi-dry pressing of gypsum building parts. Сollection of scientific works of ROSNIIMS. Moscow: Promstroyizdat, 1954. No. 6, pp. 189–208.
3. Volzhensky A.V., Rozhkova K.N. The structure and strength of the dihydrate formed during the hydration of semiaqueous gypsum. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1972. No. 5, pp. 26–28. (In Russian).
4. Volzhensky A.V. Dependence of the strength of binders on their concentration in a hardening mixture with water. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1974. No. 6, pp. 26–28. (In Russian).
5. Yundin A.N., Kaklyugin A.V., Akopdzhanov R.G. Increasing the strength and water resistance of pressed gypsum binder. Effective technologies and materials for wall and enclosing structures: Materials of the international scientific and practical conference (December 12–15, 1994). Rostov-on-Don: RSACE, 1994, pp. 87–92. (In Russian).
6. Kaklyugin A., Stupen N., Kastornykh L., Kovalenko V. Pressed composites based on gypsum and magnesia binders modified with secondary resources. Materials Science Forum. 2020. Vol. 1011, pp. 52–58. DOI: 10.4038/www.scientific.net/MSF.1011.52.
7. Kaklyugin A.V., Trishchenko I.V. The best available technologies in the production of building materials and products. Construction and architecture – 2017. Engineering and construction faculty: Materials of the scientific and practical conference. Rostov-on-Don: DSTU, 2017, pp. 185–191. (In Russian).
8. Trishchenko I.V., Kaklyugin A.V. Effectiveness of investments in the innovative directions of the construction materials industry. Izvestiya vuzov. Investisii. Stroitel’stvo. Nedvizhimost’. 2018. Vol. 8. No. 2, pp. 73–83. (In Russian). DOI: 10.21285/2227-2917-2018-2-73-83.1.
9. Korovyakov V.F. Gypsum binders and their use in construction. Rossiyskiy khimicheskiy zhurnal. 2003. Vol. XLVII. No.  4, pp. 18–25. (In Russian).
10. Volzhensky A.V., Stambulko V.I., Ferronskaya A.V. Gipsotsementnoputstsolanovyye vyazhushchiye, betony i izdeliya [Gypsum-cement-pozzolanic binders, concretes and products]. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1971. 318 p.
11. Korovyakov V.F. Prospects for the production and use in construction of water-resistant gypsum binders and products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2008. No. 3, pp. 65–67. (In Russian).
12. Budnikov P.P. Gips, yego issledovaniye i primeneniye [Gypsum, its research and application]. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1951. 418 p.
13. Rebinder P.A. Fiziko-khimicheskiye osnovy vodopronitsayemosti stroitel’nykh materialov [Physico-chemical basis for the water permeability of building materials]. Moscow: Gosstroyizdat, 1953. 184 p.
14. Kaklyugin A.V., Stupen N.S., Kastornykh L.I., Kovalen-ko V.V. Dependence of water resistance of moulded materials containing air-setting binders on effective porosity. Izvestiya vuzov. Investitsii. Stroitel’stvo. Nedvizhimost’. 2020. Vol. 10. No. 1, pp. 68–75. (In Russian). https://doi.org/10.21285/2227-2917-2020-1-68-75.
15. Ferronskaya A.V. Dolgovechnost’ gipsovykh materialov, izdeliy i konstruktsiy [Durability of gypsum materials, products and structures]. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 1984. 286 p.
16. Nevsky V.A. Ustalost’ i deformativnost’ betona [Fatigue and deformability of concrete]. Moscow: Vuzovskaya kniga, 2012. 264 p.
17. Patent RF No. 2078745 Syr’yevaya smes’ dlya izgotovleniya gipsovykh izdeliy i sposob yeye prigotovleniya. [Raw meal for manufacturing gypsum products and method of preparation thereof]. Kaklyugin A.V., Yundin A.N. 1997. (In Russian).

For citation: Kaklyugin A.V., Kastornykh L.I., Stupen N.S., Kovalenko V.V. Press-formed composites with alternate wetting and drying resistance based on modified gypsum binder. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 40–46. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-40-46

Modifiers for Rigid Polyvinylchloride Compositions of Building Purpose

Number of journal: 12-2020

Abdrakhmanova L.A.,
Khuziakhmetova K.R.,
Nizamov R.K.,
Khozin V.G.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-34-39
УДК: 691.175.743


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
A comparison of small doses (up to 0.7 mass part) of impact strength modifiers of foreign and domestic production in polyvinylchloride-based compositions is given. Domestic acrylic-nitrile-butadiene styrene modifiers (ABS) were used. The developed shock-resistant polyvinylchloride compositions in the presence of ABS elastifier have high melt fluidity, which has a beneficial effect on the recyclability. Changes in supramolecular structure were estimated from thermomechanical testing and electron microscopy data for both unfilled and filled PVC samples. Thermomechanical analysis showed that the presence of ABS modifier had a favorable effect on the technological properties of PVC-based samples. Electron-microscopic images indicate that in unfilled PVC samples, the heterogeneous PVC structure is expressed in the presence of ABS copolymer in comparison with foreign acrylic modifiers. When the compositions are filled with micro-heterogeneous structure in dispersion medium, the filler-polymer is formed by chalk particles, while ABS elasticifier is at the phase interface. Due to the peculiarities of the structure ABS has a higher degree of “fixation” on the surface of the chalk particles in comparison with the basic compositions containing acrylic modifiers, which with increasing chalk concentration leads to lower wear and tear on the top of the forming equipment.
L.A. ABDRAKHMANOVA, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.),
K.R. KHUZIAKHMETOVA, Graduate Student (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.),
R.K. NIZAMOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.),
V.G. KHOZIN, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (1, Zelenaya Street, Kazan, 420043, Russian Federation)

1. Pol D.R., Baknell K.B. Polimernyesmesi. Tom 1: Sistematika [Polymer mixtures. Vol. 1: Taxonomy. Trans. from English, edited by V.N. Kuleznev]. Saint Petersburg: Nauchnye osnovy i tekhnologii. 2009. 618 p.
2. Pol D.R., Baknell K.B. Polimernye smesi. Tom 2: Funktsional’nye svoistva [Polymer mixtures. Vol. 2: Functional Properties. Trans. from English, edited by V.N. Kuleznev]. Saint Petersburg: Nauchnye osnovy i tekhnologii. 2009. 606 p.
3. Schiller M. Dobavki k PVKh. Sostav, svoistva, primenenie [PVC additives. Composition, properties, application. Trans. from English edited by N.N. Tikhonov]. Saint Petersburg: Professiya. 2017. 400 p.
4. Ellis P. Market of highly efficient elastomers. Polimernye materialy. 2017. No. 4, pp. 4–7. (In Russian).
5. Mymrin V.N. «Interplastica-2020»: brief results. Polimernye materialy. 2020. No. 4, pp. 15–33. (In Russian).
6. Mehdipour M. R., Talebi S., RazaviAghjeh M.K. Effect of unplasticized poly vinyl chloride (UPVC) molecular weight and graft-acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (g-ABS) content on compatibility and izod impact strength of UPVC/g-ABS blends. Journal of Macromolecular Science: Physics. 2017. Vol. 56. Iss. 9, pp. 644–654. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00222348.2017.1360684
7. Barsamyan G. Modifiers for rigid PVC. Plastiks. 2017. Vol. 165. Iss. 3, pp. 21–23. (In Russian).
8. Patent GB 841889. Blend of polymeric products / Borg Warner Corp. Declared 08.04.1957. Published 20.07.1960. Bulletin No. 20.
9. Matseevich A.V., Askadskii A.A. Dependence of the modulus of elasticity on the composition of mixtures of polyvinyl chloride with ABS plastic. Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Vologda. 2016. pp. 36–37. (In Russian).
10. Matseevich A.V. Structure and properties of building materials based on nano-modified composites and polymer blends. Cand. Diss (Engineering). Moscow. 2019. 156 p. (In Russian).
11. Askadskii A.A., Matseevich T.A., Popova M.N., Kondrashchenko V.I. Prediction of polymer compatibility, analysis of the composition of microphases and a number of properties of mixtures. Vysokomolekulyarnye soedineniya. Seriya A. 2015. Vol. 57. No. 2, pp. 162–175. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7868/S2308112015020029
12. Kuleznev V.N. Smesi i splavy polimerov (konspekt lektsii). [Mixtures and alloys of polymers (lecture notes)]. Saint Petersburg: Nauchnye osnovy i tekhnologii. 2013. 216 p.
13. Uilki Ch., Sammers Dzh., Daniels Ch. Polivinilkhlorid. Per. s angl. pod red. G.E. Zaikova [Polyvinylchloride Trans. from English edited by G.E. Zaikova]. Saint Petersburg: Professiya. 2007. 728 р.
14. Lutz J.T., Dunkelberger D.L. Impact modifiers for PVC. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992. 205 p.
15. Sheryshev M.A., Tikhonov N.N. Proizvodstvo profil’nykh izdelii iz PVKh [Production of profile products from PVC]. Saint Petersburg: NOT. 2015. 613 p.

For citation: Abdrakhmanova L.A., Khuziakhmetova K.R., Nizamov R.K., Khozin V.G. Modifiers for rigid polyvinylchloride compositions of building purpose. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 34–39. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-34-39

Calculation of the Composition of Granular Charges for Decorative Wall Ceramics

Number of journal: 12-2020

Akst D.V.,
Stolboushkin A.Yu.,
Fomina O.A.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-25-33
УДК: 666.74:666.3.016


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
It has been shown the necessity of using a multicomponent charge in modern technologies of building ceramics, that caused by a number of reasons, including the usage of low-grade natural and technogenic raw materials, and the relevance of its rational selection, considering the chemical and mineralogical composition of the charge components. The results of the study of the chemical, granulometric and mineral composition of the coloring technogenic raw materials are presented: gas cleaning dust from the manganese alloys production, slag from ferrovanadium smelting and a slime part of the waste from iron ores enrichment. A perspective direction for the creation of ceramic-matrix composite materials and a developed model for the formation of a frame-painted structure of composites, which allows the usage of technogenic color modifiers for volumetric staining, are noted. The basic provisions of the developed mathematical calculation method of the granular charge composition for obtaining ceramics with frame-painted structure are considered. A model of a multilayer granule with different layered raw materials distribution is shown. The summary data of the calculation for different charge compositions and the main calculation indicators are given. The results of approbation of the calculation method on the example of manganese- and vanadium-containing technogenic raw materials for the formation of two- and three-component granular mixtures are presented. Experimental samples of decorative ceramic bricks with matrix structure were obtained in the factory. It has been substantiated and experimentally confirmed a pronounced change in the color of fired products with the use of a coloring technogenic additive with a reduced content of chromophores.
D.V. AKST1, Engineer (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.),
A.Yu. STOLBOUSHKIN1, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.);
O.A. FOMINA1, 2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

1 Siberian State Industrial University (42, Kirova Street, Novokuznetsk, 654007, Russian Federation)
2 Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of the RAS, (4, Maly Kharitonievsky Side street, Moscow, 101990, Russian Federation)

1. Coletti C., Maritan L., Cultrone G., Mazzoli C. Use of industrial ceramic sludge in brick production: Effect on aesthetic quality and physical properties. Construction and Building Materials. 2016. No. 124, pp. 219–227. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.07.096
2. Valanciene V., Siauciunas R., Baltusnikaite J. The influence of mineralogical composition on the colour of clay body. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 2010. No. 30, pp. 1609–1617. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2010.01.017
3. Ariskina K.A., Ariskina R.A., Salahov A.M., Vagi-zov F.G., Ahmetova R.T. The influence of the chemical and mineralogical composition of clays on the color of ceramic materials. Vestnik tehnologicheskogo universiteta. 2012. Vol. 19. No. 24, pp. 25–28. (In Russian).
4. Cultrone G., Sebastián E., de la Torre M.J. Mineralo-gical and physical behaviour of solid bricks with additives. Construction and Building Materials. 2005. Vol. 19, pp. 39–48. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2004.04.035
5. Ezerskiy V.A. Quantitative color assessment of ceramic facial products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 8, pp. 76–80. (In Russian).
6. Valanchene V., Mandeikite N., Urusova E. Color intensity of ceramics with glauconite additives. Steklo i keramika. 2006. No. 3, pp. 23–25. (In Russian).
7. González I., Campos P., Barba-Brioso C., Romero A., Galán E., Mayoral E. A proposal for the formulation of high-quality ceramic “green” materials with traditional raw materials mixed with Al-clays. Applied Clay Science. 2016. Vol. 131, pp. 113–123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2015.12.035
8. Herek L.C.S., Hori C.E., Reis M.H.M., Mora N.D., Tavares C.R.G., Bergamasco R. Characterization of ceramic bricks incorporated with textile laundry sludge. Ceramics International. 2012. No. 38, pp. 951–959. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2011.08.015
9. Phonphuak N., Saengthong C., Srisuwan A. Physical and mechanical properties of fired clay bricks with rice husk waste addition as construction materials. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2019. Vol. 17, pp. 1668–1674. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2019.06.197
10. Kara-sal B.K. Influence of ferrous compounds on the sintering of clay masses under reduced pressure of the firing medium. Steklo i keramika. 2005. No. 2, pp. 13–16. (In Russian).
11. Golovanova S.P., Zubekhin A.P., Likhota O.V. Whitening and intensification of ceramic sintering using iron-containing clays. Steklo i keramika. 2004. No. 12, pp. 9–11. (In Russian).
12. Bogdanov A.N., Abdrakhmanova L.A., Gordeev A.S. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a carbonate-containing additive in clay raw materials for the facial ceramics creating. Izvestiya KazGASU. 2013. No. 2 (24), pp. 215–220. (In Russian).
13. Vakalova T.V., Pogrebenkov V.M., Revva I.B. Reasons for the formation and methods of efflorescence eliminating in ceramic brick technologyю. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004. No. 2, pp. 30–31. (In Russian).
14. Pishch I.V., Maslennikova G.N., Gvozdeva N.A., Klimosh Yu.A., Baranovskaya E.I. Methods for ceramic bricks staining. Steklo i keramika. 2007. No. 8, pp. 15–18. (In Russian).
15. Gorlov Yu.P. Methods for efflorescence prevention on ceramic brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 1996. No. 11, pp. 29–30. (In Russian).
16. Stolboushkin A.Yu. Improving decorative properties of ceramic wall materials produced of technogenic and natural resources. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 8, pp. 24–29. (In Russian).
17. Rusovich-Yugai N.S. Dextrin influence on the properties of glazes, ceramic paints and cobalt oxide reduction. Steklo i keramika. 2006. No. 3, pp. 20–22. (In Russian).
18. Maslennikova G.N., Pishch I.V. Keramicheskie pigmenty [Ceramic pigments]. Moscow: Stroymaterialy. 2009. 224 p.
19. Yatsenko N.D., Zubekhin A.P. Scientific basis of innovative technologies of ceramic bricks and its properties management, depending on the chemical and mineralogical composition of raw materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2014. No. 4, pp. 28–31. (In Russian).
20. Pivinskiy Yu.E. Kvartsevaya keramika. VKVS i keramobetony. Istoriya sozdaniya i razvitiya tekhnologii [Silica Ceramics. Highly concentrated ceramic astringent suspensions and ceramic-concrete. History of creation and development of technologies]. Saint Petersburg: Politechnika print. 2018. 360 p.
21. Portnoi K.I., Salibekov S.E., Svetlov I.L., Chuba-rov V.M. Struktura i svoistva kompozitsionnykh materialov [The structure and properties of composite materials]. Moscow: Mashinostroyeniye. 1979. 255 p.
22. Fedorkin S.I., Makarova E.S. Utilization of dispersed production wastes into building materials with matrix structure. Construction and technogenic safety: digest of scientific papers. Simferopol. 2010. Iss. 32, pp. 70–74. (In Russian).
23. Vereshchagin V.I., Shil’tsina A.D., Selivanov Yu.V. The structure modeling and strength evaluation of construction ceramics from coarse-grained masses. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2007. No. 6, pp. 65–68. (In Russian).
24. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Akst D.V., Fomina O.A. Calculation of the composition of granular charges for decorative wall ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 8, pp. 38–46. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-783-8-38-46 (In Russian).
25. Patent RF 2701657. Sposob polucheniya syr’evoi smesi dlya dekorativnoi stroitel’noi keramiki [The method of obtaining a raw mix for decorative construction ceramics]. Akst D.V., Stolboushkin A.Yu., Fomina O.A. Declared 19.12.2018. Published 30.09.2019. Bulletin No. 28. (In Russian).
26. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Akst D.V., Fomina O.A., Syro-myasov V.A. Change in color intensity of decorative ceramic materials with matrix structure. Trudy NGASU. 2017. Vol. 20. No. 2 (65), pp. 92–102. (In Russian).
27. Akst D.V., Stolboushkin A.Yu. Development of a method for calculating the composition of the charge for decorative ceramics with frame-painted structure. Vestnik Sibirskogo gosudarstvennogo industrial’nogo universiteta. 2020. No. 3 (33), pp. 34–41. (In Russian).
28. Butensky M., Human D. Rotary drum granulation: an experimental study of the factors affecting granule size. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals. 1971. Vol. 10. No. 2, pp. 212–219.
29. Belov V.V., Smirnov M.A. Stroitel’nye kompozity iz optimizirovannykh mineral’nykh smesei [Building composites from optimized mineral mixtures]. Tver: TvGTU. 2012. 112 p.
30. Naumov M.M., Nokhratyan K.A. Spravochnik po proizvodstvu stroitel’noi keramiki [Handbook for the production of building ceramics]. Moscow: Gosstroyizdat. 1962. 699 p.
31. Storozhenko G., Stolboushkin A. Ceramic bricks from industrial waste. Ceramic & Sakhteman. Seasonal magazine of Ceramic & Building. 2010. No. 5, pp. 2–6.
32. Korolev L.V., Lupanov A.P., Pridatko Yu.M. Dense packing of polydisperse particles in composite building materials. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya. 2007. No. 6, pp. 109–114. (In Russian).
33. Aste T., Saadstfar M., Sakellariou A., Senden T. Investigating the geometrical structure of disordered sphere packaging. Physica A. 2004. Vol. 339, pp. 16–23.
34. Torquato S., Stillinger F.H. Multiplicity of generation, selection, and classification procedure for jammed hard particle. Physical Review Letters. 2000. Vol. 8, pp. 2064–2067.

For citation: Akst D.V., Stolboushkin A.Yu., Fomina O.A. Calculation of the composition of granular charges for decorative wall ceramics. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 25–33. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-25-33

About the Development of Brick-Design in Russia

Number of journal: 12-2020

Bozhko Yu.A.,
Lapunova K.A.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-21-24
УДК: 692.23


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
The article reflects the authors view on the technical and aesthetic side of the use of face bricks in the architecture of our country. The term brick design combines such indicators of brickwork as the color, size and surface of the brick itself, as well as the type of masonry and seam parameters. Unfortunately, the analysis of the current situation shows that the culture of consumption of face bricks in Russia remains at a low level, which is due to the lack of proper knowledge and insufficient number of qualified master masons. The main goal of brick design development is to popularize various types of three-dimensional masonry and reveal the potential of using bricks as a basic unit. The comparison shows the architecture of European cities, which does not differ in the complexity of architectural forms, but has advantages in the form of unusual masonry, color combinations, vertical direction of masonry and other elements of technical aesthetics. The use of bricks in various levels of brick design will allow you to avoid using architectural decoration on the facades of buildings, while preserving its authenticity and individuality. The brick, as a basic unit, is self-sufficient and is able to fulfill not only its functional role, but also its aesthetic one. In this situation, a necessary and decisive action will be competent communication with industry specialists, architects and designers, leading manufacturers and technologists who realize that we have a unique material that does not need additional wrapping when used efficiently.
Yu.A. BOZHKO, Engineer (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.),
K.A. LAPUNOVA, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Don state technical University (1, Gagarina Square, Rostov-on-Don, 344000, Russian Federation)

1. Kovrizhkina O.V. Tvorchestvo. Arkhitektura: v 2 ch.: uchebnoe naglyadnoe posobie [Creativity. Architecture: in two parts: visual tutorial]. Belgorod: BGTU. 2015. Vol. 1. 148 p.
2. Bozhko Yu.A., Lapunova K.A. Application of soft-moulding facing bricks in modern architecture. Dizain. Materialy. Tekhnologiya. 2018. No. 1, pp. 61–65. (In Russian).
3. Timofeev A.N., Popov A.N., Polishchuk M.N. Innovative brick wall technology. Sovremennoe mashinostroenie. Nauka i obrazovanie. 2016. No. 5, pp. 744–755. (In Russian).
4. Bozhko Yu.A., Lapunova K.A., Postoi L.V. Front ceramic brick of soft moulding on the basis of support-like raw materials. Prom-Inzhiniring. Trudy V Vserossiiskoi nauchno-tekhnicheskoi konferentsii. 2019, pp. 198–202. (In Russian).
5. Mikhailov S.M. Istoriya dizaina [Design History]. Vol. 1. Moscow: Soyuz Dizainerov Rossii. 2004. 280 p.
6. Fransis D.K. Chin’. Arkhitektura. Forma, prostranstvo [Architecture. Shape, Space]. Moscow: AST; Astrel’. 2005. 399 p.
7. Krinskii V.F., Lamtsov I.V., Turkus M.A. Obemno-prostranstvennaya kompozitsiya v arkhitekture [Spatial composition in architecture]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1975. 192 p.
8. Karimova I.S. Obektivnoe i subektivnoe v dizaine sredy [Objective and subjective in the design of the environment] Blagoveshchensk: AGU. 2012. 116 p.
9. Shlegel’ I.F. Izdeliya arkhitekturnye keramicheskie. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviya [Architectural ceramic products. General specifications.]. Omsk. 2012. 74 p.
10. Zakharov A.I., Kukhta M.S. Shape of ceramic products: philosophy, design, technology. Dizain i obshchestvo. 2015. No. 1, pp. 1–224. (In Russian).
11. Electronic resource: LSR website – https://www.lsr.ru/msk/zhilye-kompleksy/zilart/ [date of application 25.07.2020].
12. Saenko Je.G., Korepanova V.F., Grinfel’d G.I. Capabilities of façade clinker brick of «LSR» brand to substitute import. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2016. No. 4, pp. 60–63. (In Russian).
13. Trifonova E.A., Vechkasova E.N. Use of brickwork in modern design and construction. Prospects for using decorative masonry. Universum: tekhnicheskie nauki. 2018. No. 4 (49). (In Russian).

For citation: Bozhko Y.A., Lapunova K.A. About the development of brick-design in Russia. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 21–24. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-21-24

Color Assessment of Facing Brick by UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy

Number of journal: 12-2020

Shchikaltsova V.I.,
Platov Yu.T.,
Rassulov V.A.,
Platova R.A.,
Romanova E.Yu.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-16-20
УДК: 666.714:535.92


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
Diffuse reflection UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy was used to study changes in the color of facing bricks from the content of the additive of manganese tetraoxide (Mn3O4) into the ceramic mass. This investigation was shown that with an increase of the additive content, both the intensity of the absorption bands of colored bricks corresponding to hematite decreases, and the absorption intensity increases with a shift in the maximum of the wide absorption band from the visible to the near-infrared range of the spectrum. By changing the values of the color coordinates in the CIE L*a*b* and Mansell systems: lightness and color, and the values of the indicator-relative color ability, it is fixed that the color of a brick depends on the ratio of two pigments: yellowish-red of hematite and black, probably jacobsite in its composition.
V.I. SHCHIKALTSOVA1, Chief Technologist (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.);
Yu.T. PLATOV2, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.);
V.A. RASSULOV3, Doctor Sciences (Geology and Mineralogy) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.);
R.A. PLATOVA2, Candidate of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.),
E.Yu. ROMANOVA2, undergraduate student (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

1 “Gzhel brick plant” JSC (140156, Moscow region, Ramenskiy district, settlement Gzhel)
2 Plekhanov Russian University of Economics (117997, Moscow, Stremyanny lane, 36)
3 All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Mineral Resources named after N.M. Fedorovsky (119017, Moscow, Staromonetny lane, 31)

1. Salakhov A.M., Morozov V.P., Vagizov F.G., Eskin A.A., Valimuhametova A.R., Zinnatullin A.L. The scientific basis of color control lining brick at «Alekseevskaya Ceramics» factory. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction materials]. 2017. No. 3, pp. 90–95. DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2017-746-3-90-95. (In Russian)
2. Ariskina K.A., Ariskina R.A., Salahov A.M., Vagi-zov F.G., Ahmetova R.T. The influence of the chemical and mineralogical composition of clays on the color of ceramic materials. Vestnik tehnologicheskogo universiteta. 2012. Vol. 19. No. 24, pp. 25–28. (In Russian).
3. Fedorenko O., Prysiozhna L., Petrov S., Chyrkina M., Boryscako O. Studying the physicochemical regularities in the color and phase formation processes of clinker ceramic materials. Easten-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018. Vol. 6 (96). pp. 58–65. https://doi.org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.150659
4. Russovich-Yugai N.S., Neklyudova T.L. Dyeing parameters of low-melt clays. Steklo i keramika. 2007. No. 7, pp. 13–15. (In Russian).
5. Zubekhin A.P., Yatsenko N.D., Verevkin K.A. Influence of oxidation-reduction conditions of roasting on phase composition of oxides of iron and color ceramic brick. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011. No. 8, pp. 8–11. (In Russian).
6. Platova R.A., Shmarina A.A, Stafeeva Z.V. Multi dimensional colorimetric gradation of kaolin. Steklo i keramika. 2009. No. 1. pp. 17–22. (In Russian).
7. Ezerskiy V.A. Quantitative Assessment of color of ceramic facing products. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2015. No. 8, pp. 76–80. (In Russian).
8. Stolboushkin A.Yu., Akst D.V., Fomina O.A. Development of a model for color formation and distribution of a coloring component during of the firing of ceramics of frame-painted structure. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 8, pp. 38–46. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-783-8-38-46
9. Platov Yu.T., Platova R.A. Instrumental specification of colour characteristic of building materials. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013. No. 4. pp. 66–72. (In Russian).
10. Umarova N.N., Sonin V.F., Sakaeva A.G. Identification of the color scheme of ceramic bricks in color models. Vestnik Kazanskogo tekhnologicheskogo universiteta. 2014. Vol. 17. No. 24, pp. 42–45. (In Russian).
11. Karaman S., Gunal H., Ersahin S. Assessment of clay bricks compressive strength using quantitative values of color components. Construction and Building Materials. 2006. Vol. 20 (5), pp. 348–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2004.11.003
12. Karountzou G., Xanthopoulon V., Iliopoulois I. The contribution of visible near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to color determination: case of the experimental ceramic briquettes. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece. 2019. Pub. 7.
13. Szalai Z., Kiss K., Jakab G., Sipos P., Nemeth T. The use of UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy to identify iron minerals. Astronomical Note. 2013. Vol. 334 (4), pp. 940–943. https://doi.org/10.1002/asna.201211965
14. Valanciene V., Siauciunac R., Baltusnikaite J. The influence of mineralogical on the color of clay body. Journal of the European ceramic society. 2010. Vol. 30. Iss. 7, pp. 1609–1617. 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2010.01.017
15. Maslennikova G.N., Pishh I.V. Keramicheskie pigmenty [Ceramic pigments]. Moscow: Stroymaterialy Publishing. 2009. 224 p.
16. Sobolev D.N., Nikonorov N.V., Shirshnev P.S., Nuriev R.K., Stepanov S.A., Panov D.Yu. Synthesis, structure and spectral properties of potassium-alumina-borate glass with nanocrystals of manganese ferrite. Nauchno-tekhnicheskij vestnik informacionnyh tekhnologij, mekhaniki. 2016. Vol. 16. No. 4. pp. 642–647. (In Russian).
17. Scheweizer F., Rinay A. Manganese black us an Etruscan pigment. Studies in Conservation. 1982. Vol. 27 (3). pp. 118–123. https://doi.org/10.2307/1506147
18. Ivanova O.S., Petrakovskaya E.A., Ivancov R.D., Edel’man I.S., Stepanov S.A., Zarubina T.V. Effect of heat treatment and concentration of Mn and Fe on the structure of borate glass. Zhurnal prikladnoy spektroskopii. 2006. Vol. 73 (3). pp. 354–358. (In Russian).

For citation: Shchikaltsova V.I., Platov Yu.T., Rassulov V.A., Platova R.A., Romanova E.Yu. Color assessment of facing brick by UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 16–20. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-16-20

Russian Market of Ceramic Bricks. Development Trends and Prospects

Number of journal: 12-2020

Semenov A.A.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-4-5
УДК: 339.13:666.712


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
The article provides information about the state and main trends in the development of the Russian market of ceramic bricks. Data on the structure of construction of residential buildings based on the wall materials used are presented, and the regional structure of demand for ceramic bricks is estimated. The forecast of market development in 2021–2022 is presented. It is noted that from the end of 2018, the pace of housing construction in Russia increased significantly due to the transition from mid-2019 to financing through escrow accounts and the rejection of EPA (Equity Participation Agreement). The positive dynamics continued in 2019–2020, which was additionally associated with a reduction in the Central Bank’s key rate, the introduction of a preferential mortgage program in 2020, and the implementation of programs to support the construction complex in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result, the production of ceramic bricks increased by more than 3% in 2019 and by about 2% in the first 9 months of 2020. At the same time, it was found that due to unfavorable market conjuncture, the number of ceramic plants operating in Russia has significantly decreased (from 557 in 2014 to 310 in 2019)
A.A. SEMENOV, Candidate of Science (Engineering), General Director (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

LLC “GS-Expert” http://www.gs-expert.ru/

For citation: Semenov A.A. Russian market of ceramic bricks. Development trends and prospects. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 12, pp. 4–5. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-787-12-4-5

The Method of Calculation of Building Structures by Reliability Level

Number of journal: 11-2020

Belentsov Yu.A.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-786-11-54-59
УДК: 624


AbstractAbout AuthorsReferences
The analysis of the problem of calculating the bearing capacity of structures, taking into account the guaranteed level of reliability and failure-free operation, was carried out. On the basis of the works of N. N. Streletsky, A. R. Rzhanits and others, “bottlenecks” are established that do not make it possible to design structures with a guaranteed level of reliability and failure-free operation, despite the introduction of the concept of strength class and the existing reliability theory. According to the failure-free operation indicator, a scheme for normalizing the reliability of designed building structures is proposed and is interrelated with the assessment of the quality of structures being built. Guaranteed design quality indicators with a set probability of failure-free operation that are not related to strength are introduced: geometric dimensions, modulus of deformation and elasticity, taking into account the variability of properties and technology. The corresponding reserve coefficients ensuring the required probability of failure-free operation are determined. The scheme for calculating the design of structures with the required level of reliability is developed in the process of design, construction and operation of structures, taking into account the completeness and reliability of information on the results of quality control, during operation, taking into account the reduction of physical, mechanical and other properties of structures.
Yu.A. BELENTSOV, Doctor of Sciences (Engineering) (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)

Petersburg State Transport University of Emperor Alexander I (9, Moskovsky Avenue, 190031, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation)

1. GOST R ISO 2394–2016. Building structures. Basic principles of reliability. Moscow: Standardinform. 2016. 61 p. (In Russian).
2. Lantukh-Lyashchenko A.I. The concept of reliability in the Eurocode. Mosti ta tunelі: teorіya, doslіdzhennya, praktika. 2014. No. 6, pp. 79–88. (In Russian).
3. NSR EN 1990–2011 EUROCODE 0: Fundamentals of the design of structures. Moscow. 2011. 144 s.
4. Rayzer V.D. Teoriya nadezhnosti v stroitel’nom proyektirovanii [Reliability theory in construction design]. Moscow: ASV. 1998. 304 p.
5. Rayzer V.D. Teoriya nadezhnosti sooruzheniy [The theory of the reliability of structures]. Moscow: ASV. 2010. 382 p.
6. Yefremov I.V., Rakhimova N.N. Nadezhnost’ tekhnicheskikh sistem i tekhnogennyy risk [Reliability of technical systems and technogenic risk]. Orenburg: OGU. 2013. 163 p.
7. Belentsov Yu.A., Smirnova O.M. Influence of acceptable defects on decrease of reliability level of reinforced concrete structures. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET). 2018. Vol. 9. Iss. 11, pp. 2999–3005.
8. Rzhanitsyn A.R. Teoriya rascheta stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy na nadezhnost’ [The theory of calculating building structures for reliability]. Moscow: Stroyizdat. 1978. 239 p.
9. Krasnoshchekov Yu.V. Taking into account the variability of constant loads when calculating the structures of buildings and structures. Vestnik SibADI. 2018. Vol. 15. No. 1 (59), pp. 88–97. (In Russian).
10. Krasnoshchekov Yu.V., Zapoleva M.Yu. Probabilistic design of structures for a given level of reliability. Vestnik SibADI. 2015. No. 1 (41), pp. 68–73. (In Russian).
11. Usakovsky S.B. Reliability assessment of constructions including inaccuracy of computational method and incompleteness of baseline information. Application tasks on the basis of this model. Zbіrnik naukovikh prats’. Serіya: galuzeve mashinobuduvannya, budіv-nitstvo. 2015. No. 1 (43), pp. 73–80. (In Russian).
12. Znamenskiy E.M., Sukhov Yu.D. On the calculation of structures with a given level of reliability. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy. 1987. No. 2, pp. 7–9. (In Russian).
13. Belentsov Yu.A., Kharitonov A.M. Determination of the safety factor in assessing the quality of brick structures. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov. 2016. No. 4 (57), pp. 105–110. (In Russian).
14. Egorov V.V., Belentsov Yu.A., Abu-Khasan M.S., Kuprava L.R. Calculation of the limiting coefficient of variation of masonry when calculating statistical indicators for assessing the strength and level of reliability of structures erected from brickwork. BST: Byulleten’ stroitel’noy tekhniki. 2020. No. 1 (1025), pp. 60–63. (In Russian).
15. Set of rules 70.13330.2012 Bearing and enclosing structures. Updated edition. Moscow: JSC “Codex”. 198 p. (In Russian).
16. GOST 13015–2012 Concrete and reinforced concrete products for construction. General technical requirements. Rules for acceptance, labeling, transportation and storage. Moscow: Standartinform. 2019. (In Russian).
17. GOST 21778–81 System for ensuring the accuracy of geometric parameters in construction. Basic provisions. Moscow: Standards Publishing House. 1989. (In Russian).
18. GOST R ISO 2859-1–2007 Statistical methods. Sampling procedures on an alternative basis. Part 1. Plans for the sampling of consecutive lots based on an acceptable level of quality. Moscow: Standartinform. 2020. (In Russian).
19. Krasnoshchekov Yu.V., Zapoleva M. Yu. Estimated values of wind load with a given provision. Vestnik SibADI. 2015. No. 2 (42), pp. 64–67. (In Russian).
20. Set of rules 63.13330.2012 Concrete and reinforced concrete structures. Basic provisions. Updated edition of SNiP 52-01–2003. Moscow: JSC “Codex”. 2012.

For citation: Belentsov Yu.A. The method of calculation of building structures by reliability level. Stroitel’nye Materialy [Construction Materials]. 2020. No. 11, pp. 54–59. (In Russian). DOI: https://doi.org/10.31659/0585-430X-2020-786-11-54-59